نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جامعه شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد جامعه شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به دنبال آن است که با تابیدن نوری به زوایای تاریخ جنسیت در جامعه ایرانی، به تصویر دقیق‍تری از «وضعیت زنان و خانواده در دوران قاجار» دست یابد. مطالعه حاضر بر اساس تحلیل مضامین موجود در منابع و اسناد تاریخی انجام‌گرفته است. در این راستا، مجموعه‍ای از سفرنامه ها، خاطرات، نشریات و اسناد تاریخی، مورد ارزیابی و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. یافته های این پژوهش نشان داد که زنان در عصر قاجار، از کمترین حقوق اجتماعی برخوردار بودند. آن‌ها نه اختیاری برای ازدواج داشتند و نه توانی برای طلاق؛ نه آمدنشان به خانه شوهر با اراده خویشتن بود و نه رفتنشان به تصمیم خویش. همه زنان را در خیابان به یک‌شکل کرده بودند؛ همگی چادربه‌سر و روبنده به‌صورت داشتند. نه انتخاب پوشش در بیرون خانه به اختیار آن‌ها بود و نه کار و کوشش در درون خانه امانشان می‍داد. بردن نامشان ممنوع بود و «ضعیفه» خطابشان می‍کردند. نه نامی از آن‌ها برده می‍شد و نه مقامی به آن‌ها سپرده می‍شد. بیشتر، کالای جنسی بودند در دست مردان و بستری برای تولید فرزندان. گویی شهروندانی درجه دوم بودند در تاریخ ایران. در کودکی ازدواج می‍کردند و در جوانی پیر می‍شدند. هنوز کودکی نکرده، مادر می‍شدند و هنوز جوانی را ندیده، فرتوت می‍شدند. عمرشان کوتاه بود و بختشان سیاه. به‌واقع دوره قاجار بر وفق زنان نبود؛ عصر، عصر پدرسالاری بود و سلطه مردانه، همه عرصه های زندگی آنان را درنوردیده بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Women and Patriarchal Gender Order; A Historical Narrative of "Family Life" of Iranian Women in the Qajar Era (1789-1925).

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hosein Sharifi Saei 1
  • Taghi Azadarmaki 2

1 PhD of Sociology, University of Terhan, Iran

2 Professor of Sociology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this research was to study the situation of Iranian women in the Qajar era (1789-1925). The present research has been done by historical method. The findings of this study showed that women in the Qajar era had very few social rights. Women were the second sex. They were second-class citizens. Domestic violence against women was common. Marriage of women in the Qajar period was forced marriage. They had no freedom in marriage. Girls had to get married as children (10 to 12 years old). Women had to have children quickly. They had to have many children (at least 7 to 8 children). Their children also had to get married between the ages of 10 and 12. Women became grandmothers in their 30s. The aging process was very fast. Life expectancy in women was very low. During the Qajar period, polygamy was common. Patriarchy prevailed in the family and society. Women were completely dominated by men. In the Qajar period, women were considered inferior to men. Therefore, they had to obey men.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Women and Family Studies
  • Gender Studies
  • patriarchy
  • Qajar era
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