نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

نظریه انتخاب عقلانیِ علم اقتصاد در تحلیل کنش اقتصادی با دو مشکل اساسی مواجهه است. مشکل اعتبار، یعنی تأیید تجربی اصول بنیادین آن و مشکل موضوعیت، یعنی توان و ظرفیت توجه هم‌زمان به عوامل اجتماعی و ذهنی کنشگر. سنت‌های مختلف جامعه‌شناسی تلاش کرده‌اند برای پر کردن حفره‌های آن دیدگاه متفاوتی برای تحلیل کنش اقتصادی ارائه کنند اما این رویکردهای جامعه‌شناختی در سطح تحلیلی متفاوتی با نظریه انتخاب عقلانی کنش اقتصادی را توضیح داده‌اند بنابراین نتوانسته‌اند بدیل مناسبی برای آن باشند. سؤال اصلی پژوهش این است که آیا جامعه‌شناسی اقتصادی می‌تواند سطح تحلیل علی نزدیک‌تری با آنچه نظریه انتخاب عقلانی اشاره دارد، ارائه کند که هم‌زمان به عوامل اجتماعی و ذهنیت کنشگر، محاسبه‌گری و روتین‌ها توجه کند؟ مبانی نظری این پژوهش رویکرد رابطه‌گرایی و نحوه تعامل کنش و ساختار موقعیت، ذهنیت حسابگرانه و روال‌ها است. روش پژوهش اسنادی و مبتنی بر تفسیر و مرور انتقادی متون دست‌اول جامعه‌شناسی است تا نحوه مواجهه نظری سنت جامعه‌شناسی با نظریه انتخاب عقلانی و امکان بدیل مناسب برای آن روشن شود. دو مفهوم دلایل عملی و روال‌ها در نظریه بوردیو و شوتس در دو سنت فکری متفاوت می‌توانند توضیح جامعه‌شناختی مناسبی برای کنش اقتصادی در مقابل نظریه انتخاب عقلانی ارائه کنند که در این میان نظریه شوتس به جهت توجه هم‌زمان به رفتار حسابگرانه و عادات در توضیح کنش اقتصادی بدیل مناسبی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Problem of Economic Action: The Possibility of a Sociological Alternative in the Face of Rational Choice Theory

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamzeh Nowzari

Assistant Professor of Sociology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The theory of rational choice of economics in the analysis of economic action faces two basic problems. The problem of validity, that is, the empirical confirmation of its basic principles, and the problem of subjectivity, that is, the ability and capacity to pay simultaneous attention to the social and mental factors of the actor. Different sociological traditions have tried to express different perspectives on the analysis of economic action. But these sociological approaches have explained at an analytical level different from the theory of rational choice of economic action, so they have not been a suitable alternative. The main question of the research is whether economic sociology can provide an analysis that in analyzing economic behavior simultaneously pays attention to social factors and active mentality, calculation and routines? The theoretical framework of this research is the relational approach and the way of interaction, action and situation structure, calculating mentality and routines. The research method is documentary and based on critical interpretation and review of the main sociological texts in order to analyze the theoretical approach of the sociological tradition to the theory of rational choice and the possibility of a suitable alternative to it. The two concepts of practical reasons and routines in Bourdieu and Schutz theories in two different theoretical traditions can provide a suitable sociological explanation for economic action. Schutz's theory is a good alternative for explaining economic action because of the simultaneous analysis of calculation and routines.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic action
  • Rational choice
  • Habitus
  • Routines
  • Interest
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