نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جامعه شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه‌شناسی سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

برخی اندیشمندان برای تبیین شکل‌گیری حکومت صفوی بر نقش عصبیت قبیله‌ای و برخی دیگر بر نقش عصبیت دینی تأکید کرده‌اند و درواقع، هیچ‌کدام به هم‌نشینی و هم‌افزایی فرایندی عوامل مزبور در تشکیل این حکومت توجه نداشته‌اند. بر این اساس، هدف پژوهش حاضر این بوده است که بر اساس آراء سیاسی ابن‌خلدون و با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی و استفاده از روش اسنادی و مطالعه متون تاریخی مرتبط با موضوع پژوهش، فرایند هم‌نشینی و هم‌افزایی هر دو نوع عصبیت را در تشکیل حکومت صفوی آشکار کند. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهند که شاه اسماعیل با بهره‌گیری از ولایت صوفیانه، موجبات هم‌نشینی سه عامل عصبیت قبیله‌ای درون هر یک از قبایل، عصبیت دینی درون هر یک از قبایل و عصبیت دینی میان همه قبایل را فراهم آورده و بر همین اساس، میان قبایل مختلف تحت امر خود اتحاد و انسجام ایجاد کرده و با استفاده از قدرت مضاعف این قبایل که محصول هم‌نشینی و هم‌افزایی پیوندهای دینی با پیوندهای قومی بوده، با پیروزی بر سایر مدعیان قدرت موفق به تشکیل حکومت صفوی شده است؛ بنابراین، در تشکیل حکومت صفوی هر دو نوع عصبیت، البته با تقدم عصبیت دینی بر عصبیت قبیله‌ای، دارای نقش و جایگاه بوده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Sufism in the Development of Safavid Government (Revising the Theories of Ibn khaldun about the Development of Governments)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Saraie 1
  • Abolfazl Fathabadi 2

1 Professor of Sociology,, Allameh Tabataba'i University,Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate of Political Sociology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Some of thinkers put an emphasis on the role of tribal Asabiyyah, and some of them emphasize the role of religious Asabiyyah to explain the development of Safavid government and all of them, neglect the process of affinity and synergy of these factors in this respect. Therefore, the article tries to reveal the process of affinity and synergy of these two factors in the development of the Safavids on the base of Ibn Khaldun’s political theories and with descriptive-analytical study and using of archival research method and studying the related historical texts. Findings show that Shah Ismail, by applying Sufi Walayah, has provided the affinity of tribal Asabiyyah within each tribe, religious Asabiyyah within each tribe and religious Asabiyyah between all tribes and accordingly, was able to create unity and cohesion among several tribes which were under his commands and by using the double power, which has been the product of affinity and synergy of tribal Asabiyyah and religious Asabiyyah, has defeated other contenders and has succeeded in developing the Safavid government. This means, two aspects of Asabiyyah, of course with the precedence of religious Asabiyyah over tribal Asabiyyah, have taken role in the process of the development of this government.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sufism
  • Sufi Walayah
  • religious
  • Tribal Asabiyyah
  • Ibn Khaldun
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