عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This paper first focuses on the necessity of cooperation among human beings, and then offers objective and subjective reasons for higher cooperation among human beings compared to animals. The paper tries to proove that cooperation precedes war and is more normal than the latter. ln fact, the history of war and conflict both is shorter than the war in human societies, and more exceptional. War, in its sociological meaning, is even based on cooperation, while the existence of cooperation is not based on war. To support this argument, the author refers to anthropological, historical and archeological findings. The paper, rejecting the theories of thinkers such as Freud, Sieinmentz, Bouthoul, and social darwinists such as Gurnplowicz, Backlc, and futurists such as Martinetti, and accepting theories of people like Ralph Linton, Letourneeu, Derbij, Hobhouse, Summner and Keller shows that war is neither instinctual nor necessary or natural, and therefore, it is not eternal, rather it is a recent and cultural phenomenon.