نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جامعه شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکترای جامعه شناسی سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش به بررسی راهبرد مشارکت سیاسی در میان کنشگران چهار حوزه معلمی، دانشجویی، زنان و کارگری پرداختیم. سؤال محوری این است که کنشگران چه راهبرد‍هایی را برای دستیابی به مطالباتشان در بستر نظام سیاسی موجود در پیش می‍گیرند. بدین منظور از نظریات دموکراتیک‍سازی و انعطاف‍پذیری اقتدارگرایی سود بردیم. برای جمع‌آوری داده‍های تحقیق، از روش کیفی و مصاحبه‍های نیمه ساختاریافته با 22 نفر از فعالان چهار حوزه منتخب استفاده کردیم و با کمک تحلیل محتوای تماتیک به تجزیه‌وتحلیل مصاحبه‌ها پرداختیم. یافته‍های پژوهش نشان می‍دهند کنشگران از چهار راهبرد 1- روابط حسنه یا تعامل با حاکمیت، 2- مقاومت در برابر حاکمیت، 3- بازسازی درونی پس از وقوع سرکوب و 4- ائتلاف‍ استفاده می‍کنند. کنشگران گاه به‌طور هم‌زمان و ترکیبی چند راهبرد را بکار می‍گیرند و یا در طول زمان، راهبرد‍های متفاوت را در مقاطع زمانی مختلف تجربه می‍کنند. نتایج حاکی از آن است که تشکل‍ها ابتدا مذاکره با مسئولان را آزمون می‍کنند، سپس مسیر اشکال غیررسمی کنشگری را طی می‍کنند که هزینه‍برند. بالا رفتن هزینه، کنشگران را وادار به پنهان‍کاری فعالیت‍هایشان می‍کند. درواقع کنشگران در زمانه‍ای که فرصت سیاسی برای فعالیت وجود دارد از آن بهره می‍برند و در زمانه‍ی عسرت و انسداد فضای سیاسی میان کنش‍های رسمی و غیررسمی جابه جا می‍شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategy for Political Participation among Women, Teachers, Students and Labor activists

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Hossein Panahi 1
  • Atena Kamel Ghalibaf 2

1 Professor of Sociology , Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate of Political Sociology, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

This study aims at examining strategies of political participation of four varied groups, namely teachers, students, women, and laborers. Drawing on theories of formal/informal political actions, the paper has interrogated the political strategies actors employ to realize their claims within the broader political scene. This includes theories of democratization and authoritarian resilience. In order to gather data, the study uses qualitative methods and semi-structured interview. In this light, 22 political activists from different groups were interviewed. Following this, thematic content analysis came along to assess the findings. Accordingly, four different strategies have been recognized, that is rapprochement or negotiating with state, resisting against state, renewal and reconstructing the organization after repression, and finally making coalition with other groups. However, these strategies should not be considered as completely separated way of acting in the political scene. Quite contrary, actors more often employ the combination of these varied strategies. Furthermore, it seems that political organizations have a kind of sequence beginning with contacting and negotiating with statesman. Next step would be more informal way of action (legal or illegal) which is not without consequences. These consequences make political activists more cautious and lead them toward informal and underground activities including establishing non-registered groups and individual or collective sporadic activities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • political participation
  • Formal and Informal
  • Civil Society Organizations
  • Iran
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