نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار جامعه‌شناسی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار مطالعات فرهنگی، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه گیلان.رشت، ایران

چکیده

«کودکی» پدیده‌ای مدرن است که کمتر مورد کاوش تاریخی-جامعه‌شناختی قرار گرفته‌است. در دیدگاه غالب، کودک درون دستگاهی روان‌شناختی تعریف می‌شود و موجودی معصوم، آسیب‌پذیر و نیازمند حمایت است. این شکل برساخت کودک به شیوه‌ای درونماندگار، تجربه‌های متفاوت دیگری از کودکی را خلق و طرد می‌کند؛ اما کودکی موجودیتی یکپارچه نیست و نباید از دریچه‌ معیارهای برساخته‌ی آن به تمامی تجربه‌های متکثر اجتماعی‌اش معنا بخشید. در این مقاله تلاش کردیم با رویکردی تاریخی، یکی از این کودکی‌های مطرود را برجسته کنیم و از خلال آن به بررسی زمینه‌های پیدایش دارالتادیب به‌عنوان نخستین فضای اختصاصی حبس کیفری کودکان بپردازیم. بدین منظور از ملاحظات نظری و مفروضات روش‌شناختی تبارشناسی و دیرینه‌شناسی فوکویی بهره برده و تلاش کردیم با بررسی اسناد تاریخی، روایت بدیعی از تجربه‌ی کودکی در ایران برسازیم. نتایج نشان می‌دهد ادراک کودکی در عصر پهلوی اول بر مبنای «کودک نیازمند تربیت» بود و کودکان مجرم در این دوران با شکلی از آسیب‌شناسی تربیتی بازنمایی می‌شدند. سوژه‌ای که در این گفتمان مورد تأدیب قرار می‌گرفت «طفل بدذات» بود که با تغییرات تاریخی پیش‌آمده، بدل به «طفل بزهکار» شد. ایدئولوژی حمایت در همدستی با گفتمان روان‌شناسیْ کودک را همچون موجودی آسیب‌پذیر تولید می‌کردند و دارالتادیب در نتیجه‌ی چنین فرآیندی تجلی فضایی یافت.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Childhood, Delinquency, Incarceration: A Narrative of the Emergence of Daar-alta’adib in Pahlavi Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Khorsandnejad 1
  • Hassan Chavoshian 2
  • Arash Heydari 3
  • Hamid Abdollahi Chanzanagh 4

1 MA of Sociology, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Sociology,, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Science and Culture-Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, , University of Sociology, University of Guilan.Rasht, Iran

چکیده [English]

“Childhood” is a modern phenomenon which has not been inquired historio-sociologically frequently. The prevalent prospect defines the child in a psychological system, and considers it to be an innocent, vulnerable and protection-needing being. Immanently, this form of constructing the child creates and excludes diverse experiences of childhood. But childhood is not an integral entity and we shouldn’t attempt to give meaning to its plural range of social experiences through its constructed criteria. The present researchers tried to mark one of these “excluded” childhoods with a historical approach and explore the context of emergence of “Daar-alta’adib” as the first carceral space of children. We made use of theoretical considerations and methodological assumptions of Foucauldian genealogy and archaeology to construct an alternative narrative of experiences of childhood in Iran. Findings indicate that the perception of childhood in first Pahlavi era was based on the figure of “child in need of education” and criminal children were represented in terms of educational pathology. The subject that was disciplined in this discourse was “ill-natured child” whom turned into “delinquent child” as historical changes came in to play. Protection ideology collaborating with psychology produced child as a vulnerable being, and through this process, spatial emergence of Daar-alta’adib became possible.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Daar-alta’adib
  • Education
  • childhood
  • Incarceration
  • psychology
  • Delinquency
Aagheli, B. (1990). Daavar and Adlieh. Tehran: elmi. [in Persian]
Amidi, E. (1943). Causes of Youth Crime and the Need to Establish Juvenile Courts. Kanoon-e Vokala, 10(88): 155-164. [in Persian]
Bahrami, F (1929). Daar-alta’dib, Nazmieh, 3: 1. [in Persian]
Chakrabarty, D. (2008). Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference, Princeton University press.
Çiçek, N. (2014). Mapping the Turkish Republican Notion of Childhood and Juvenile Delinquency: The Story of Children’s Courts in Turkey 1940-1990, In: Juvenile Delinquency and the Limits of Western Influence, 1850–2000, Palgrave MacMillan, London.
Dashti, A. (1960). Prison Days. Tehran:Ibn-e Sina. [in Persian]
Eftekhari, Y. (1991). The Memories of Elapsed Era: By the Efforts of Bayat, K & Tafreshi, M. Tehran: Ferdows Publications. [in Persian]
Foroughi, M. (1949). Impact of Shah’s Behavior on Education of Iranian, Yaghma, 17: 285-288.
Foucault, M. (1977). Nietzsche, Genealogy, History, In: the Foucault Reader (1984), New York: Random House.
Foucault, M. (1998). The Order of Discourse. Translated into Persian by Parham, B. Tehran: Nahid. [in Persian]
Foucault, M. (2009). Theater of Philosophy. Translated into Persian by Jahandideh, A & Sarkhosh, N. Tehran: Ney publications. [in Persian]
Foucault, M. (2013). Archaeology of Knowledge. Translated into Persian by Jahandideh, A & Sarkhosh, N. Tehran: ney publications. [in Persian]
Heydari, A. (2016). The Genealogy of Iranian Tyranny from the Perspective of Cultural History. PHD Thesis Allame-tabatabae’i University. [in Persian]
Hatami, Z. (2016). Childhood History in Iran: From the Beginning of the Nasseri Era to the End of the Reza Shah Kingship. Tehran: Elm Publications. [in Persian]
Hendrick, H (2003). Child Walfare; Historical Dimentions, Contemporary debate, Bristol: the Policy Press.
Hooman, A. (1960). Prisons and prisoners or the penitentiary regime. Tehran: Tehran university. [in Persian]
Hooman, A. (1938).  International Support of Children. Legal Collection, 10(51): 23-24. [in Persian]
Karimkhan, M. (2012). The Emergence of New School in Iran. Master Thesis: Tehran University. [in Persian]
Khazaei, Y. (2016). The Structuration Process of Prison Institution: From the Mashroote (Constitutional) Era to the End of the First Pahlavi Kingship. Tehran: Aagah Publications. [in Persian]
Khosravi, KH. (1964).  An Inquiry of the Pathology of Urban Life. Iran Problems, 3(18&19): 273-281. [in Persian]
Kianpoor, GH. (1958). Young criminals. Kanoon-e Vokala, 8(61): (24-32). [in Persian]
Latifinia, M. (1996).  Iran and International Conferences (1924-1928). Ganjine Asnad, In Summer 2000: 84-107. [in Persian]
Majidi, A. (1958). Juvenile Delinquency. Kanoon-e Vokala, 5(32): 63-69. [in Persian]
Mashayekhi, A. (2016). Genealogy is Gray: Reflections on Foucault's Method. Tehran: Nahid. [in Persian]
Meskoob, M. (2008).  Iranian social policy in the twentieth centuryTranslated into Persian by Azizizmehr, KH. Social Science Book; New Period, 1(1): 70-85. [in Persian]
Mohammadi, M. & Ghaeeni, Z. (2001), The History of Children’s Literature in Iran, Tehran: Chista. [in Persian]
Najmabadi, A. (2005) Women with Mustaches and Men Without Beards; Gender and Sexual Anxieties of Iranian Modernity, University of Colombia Press.
Nakhshabi, R. (1926). Nurturing Children in the Family. Tehran: Tehran University. [in Persian]
Nikpour, G. (2015). Prison days: Incarceration and Punishment in modern Iran, Phd Thesis: Colombia University.
Schayegh, C. (2005). Serial Murder in Tehran: Crime, Science, and the formation of Modern State and Society in Interwar Iran, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol 47, issue 4.
Seyfi Ghomi Tafreshi, M. (1983). Nazm va Nazmieh in Qajar Period. Tehran: Yassavoli. [in Persian]
Shah-Abadi, H. (2003). Introduction to Children's Literature: A Debate on Understanding the Concept of Childhood, Tehran: Center for the Intellectual Development of Children and Adolescents. [in Persian]
Taghizadeh, H. (1925). Primary or Higher Education. Ayande, 1(6): 329-345. [in Persian]
Toufigh, E. (2019). Naming the Suspension. Tehran: Mania Honar. [in Persian]
Yusefi, M. (2016).  Differentiation of Children's Literature Institutions in the 1960s. In an Introduction to Childhood studies in Iran. Tehran: Aagah: 49-88. ([in Persian]
Zokaei, M. (2016). Childhood Studies: Concepts, Approaches and Central Issues, in an Introduction to Childhood studies in Iran. Tehran: Aagah Publications. [in Persian]