آثار و پیآمدهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی مدیریت آزادسازی مخازن سدها (نمونه موردی: سد آزاد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری جامعه شناسی اقتصادی و توسعه دانشگاه آزاد اسالمی، واحد تهران مرکزی

2 دانشیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی.

3 استادیار جمعیت شناسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سدهای مخزنی زمینه جابجایی بیش از 80 میلیون نفر از محل زندگی خود شده است. مطابق نتایج بررسی حاضر، در ایران نیز بیش از 2 میلیون نفر جمعیت تحت تأثیر احداث سدها قرار گرفته‌اند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی آثار و پیامدهای اجتماعی و فرهنگی تحت تأثیر مدیریت آزادسازی مخازن سدها، نقد این سیاست‌ها و شناسایی عوامل علی، زمینه‌ای، مداخله گر، راهبردی و پیامدهای آن بوده است. روش پژوهش کیفی و از تکنیک نظریه زمینه‌ای استفاده شده است. شرکت‌کنندگان این پژوهش 47 نفر از مطلعین و خبرگان محلی بودند که با پرسشنامه نیمه ساختمند مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفتند. تجزیه‌وتحلیل با سه روش کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی در دستور کار قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل مصاحبه‌ها 391 مفهوم کلی، 118 مقوله فرعی، 21 مقوله اصلی و 2 مقوله مرکزی را نشان می‌دهد. یافته‌های پژوهش بر اساس مدل پارادیمی، پایداری نسبی حوزه اجتماعی و فرهنگی را در سیاست جابجایی و اسکان مجدد و ازهم‌گسیختگی ساختار اجتماعی و بافت فرهنگی را در سیاست جبران نقدی خسارت نشان می‌دهد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش به‌ضرورت تغییر رویکرد، اصلاح لوایح قانونی، متولی حوزه اجتماعی و پایش تأثیرات اجتماعی طرح‌ها منتهی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Socio-Cultural Impacts and Consequences of Managing the Release of Dam Reservoirs (Case study: Azad Dam)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Nourisani 1
  • Reza Ali Mohseni 2
  • Majid Koosheshi 3
1 PhD of Economic Sociology and Development, Islamic Azad University,Central Tehran Branch
2 Associate Professor of Sociology, Islamic Azad University
3 Assistant Professor of Demography, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

The implementation of reservoir dams has caused the displacement of more than 80 million people. According to the present study, more than 2 million people have been affected by the construction of dams in Iran. The present study aims at investigating into the socio-cultural impacts and consequences of two methods of managing the release of dam reservoirs. Criticizing these two policies and consequences and identifying the causal, contextual, intervening, strategic occur. The research method is qualitative and the Grounded Theory is used. The study participants were 47 informants and local experts who were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed based on three methods of open, axial and selective coding. The results of the interview analysis included 391 general concepts, 118 subcategories, 21 main categories and 2 central categories. The research findings based on the paradigmatic model show the relative stability of social, cultural domains in relocation, resettlement policy, the disruption of social structure and cultural context in cash compensation policy. The results of the present study can be considered in terms of the necessity of changing the approaches, determining the social sphere and the need to monitor and evaluate the social impacts of the projects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Impact
  • Cultural Consequences
  • Grounded Theory
  • Liberalization Policy
  • Dams Reservoir
  • paradigmatic model
-      Alikhah, F. (2014). Community-Based Approach to Road Construction (Inpersian). Tehran: Social Science Publication.
-      Becker DR, Harris CC, Nielsen EA, Mclaughlin WJ. (2003). A Comparison of a Technical and a Participatory Application of Social Impact Assessment. Impact Assessment Project Appraisal, Vol.22, Pp. 177-189.
-      Becker, H.A. (2001). Social Impact Assessment. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 128, No. 2, Pp. 311-321.
-      Bryman, Alan. (1988). Quality and Quantity in Social Research, London, Unwin Humanly Press.
-      Burdge, R. (2004). Social Impact Assessment Concepts, Process and Methods. Translated in to Persian By Mohammad Ali Zakarie, Ali Hajli (Inpersian). Tehran: Society and Culture Publications.
-      Burdge, R. (2008). The Focus of Impact Assessment (And IAIA) Must Now Shift to Global Climate Change! Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Vol 28, Pp. 618-622.
-      Cernea, M. & Guggenheim, Scott, E. (1993) Anthropological Approaches To Resettlement: Theory, Policy and Practice. Boulder, Westview Press.
-      Cernea, M. (1997). Hydropower Dams and Social Impacts: A Sociologica; Perspective. World Bank, Social Policy and Resettlement Division.
-      Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd Ed.). London: Sage Publications.
-      Fazeli, M (2014). Social Impact Assessment (Inpersian). Tehran, Sociology Publications.
-      Freudenburg, W. R. (1986). Social Impact Assessment. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 12, Pp. 451-478.
-      Glaser, Barney & Strauss, Anselm. (1967). Discovery of Grounded Theory, Transaction Publishers, U.S. Publisher.
-      Gubrium, J., & Holstein, J. (2001). Handbook of Interview Research. London: Sage Publications.
-      Javadi, A, (2012). The Impact of Dam Construction on the Upstream and Downstream Social Status of the Laver Fin Dam, Master of Science Degree in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture(Inpersian). University of Hormozgan.
-      Kadivar, M, (2007). Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making. World Commission on Dams (Inpersian). Tehran: Institute for Management and Planning Education and Research. Vanclay, F. Esteves, A.M. (2011). New Directions In Social Impact Assessment. Edward Elgar Publishing.
-      Mohammadpour, A, (2011). Qualitative Research Methods. Volumes 1 and 2 of the Method (Inpersian). Tehran: Sociology Publications.
-      Neuman, L, (2006). Social Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Fourth Edition, London, Allyn And Bacon.
-      Nourisani, A, (2011). The Importance and Role of Social Studies in Dam Reserviore in the Selection of Normal Water Level. Case Study: Sardasht Dam and Haidro Power (Inpersian). Tehran: The First International Conference and the Third National Conference on Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plants. Ministry of Energy.
-      Nourisani, A, (2013). Investigating the Social and Cultural Effects of the "Dam" Construction With a Focus on the “Relocation and Resettlement Program ". Unpublished Dissertation Msc(Inpersian). Tehran North Azad University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
-      Nourisani, A,. (2017-2019). Results of Field Surveys and Data Analysis (Inpersian). Tehran.
-      Nourisani, A,. Masumi, K. Najib, M. (2012). The Social Consequences of Industrial Loading in the Local Community. Case Study: South Pars. Second National Conference on Social and Cultural Research in Iranian Society (Inpersian). Tehran: December 2011. Iranian Sociological Association.
-      Nourisani, A. Nadarlui, R. (2007). Relocation and Resettlement Studies and Challenges. Case Study: Social Relocation and Resettlement Studies of the Lillan Chai Dam. Tehran: Second National Conference on Dam and Hydro Power Plants. Ministry of Energy, [Inpersian].
-      Parvizi, E, (2014). Determining the Attitude of The Villagers About the Effects of the Shah Qasim Dam, Isfahan. Master of Science Degree in Agriculture (Inpersian). Isfahan University of Technology.
-      Rahmati, A and Nazarian, A (2010). Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Settlements Affected by Dams (Case Study: Gotvand Dam, Karun River) (Inpersian). Journal of Environmental Research.
-      Research Training Center of Tehran University (2003). Economic, Social and Natural Studies of Karun 3 Dam (Inpersian). Tehran, Iran Water and Power Resources Development Company, University of Tehran Jihad.
-      Ritchie, J., And Lewis, J. (2005), “Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide For Social Science Students and Researchers”, London: Sage Publication.
-      Strauss, Anselm. Corbin, Juliet. (1990). Principles of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Stages of Producing Grounded Theory. Translated in to Persian by Ibrahim Afshar (Inpersian). Tehran: Ney Publications.
-      Urquhart, C. (2013). Grounded Theory for Qualitative Research, A Practical Guide. Sage Publication.
-      Www.World Commission on Dams.Org
-      Www.Wrm.Ir