حافظه و دین در ایران؛ تحولات و چشم‌اندازها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه شناسی سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار انسان شناسی پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی

چکیده

در این مقاله، تحول در الگوهای حافظۀ ایرانیان (با تأکید بر تجربۀ دیداری‌شان) تبیین و نقش مناسبات قدرت در آن تحلیل خواهد شد. بدین منظور از انواع تکنولوژی‌های حافظه‌ای (شفاهی، سواد (چاپ) و دیجیتالی (الکترونیک)) و تأثیر آن در به وجود آمدن اکولوژی‌های حافظه‌ای در دوره‌های مختلف (پیشامعاصر، معاصر و امروزی) سخن به میان خواهد آمد. سپس، با تکیه‌بر رویکرد و روش "تحلیل فرهنگی"، نقش مناسبات قدرت در تولید، انباشت و انتقال حافظه‌های دینی (یا اطلاعات، دانش‌ها و مناسک دینی) ایرانیان تحلیل می‌گردد. نشان داده خواهد شد با گذار به دوران معاصر قدرت عاملیّت و بازیگری ایرانیان در حافظه‌های دینی‌شان از عامه مردم به نفع نخبگان و دولت تغییر پیدا می‌کند. درواقع، استدلال این است که در دوران معاصر قدرت تولید و بازتولید ایرانیان درزمینه بازتعریف جایگاه دین در حافظه‌شان کاهش‌یافته و در عوض نقش ساختارهای معاصر (همچون سواد)_از خلال تولید حافظه‌های کلان نخبه‌گرایانه و نیز دولت- افزایش یافته است. باوجوداین، همان‌طور که اشاره خواهد شد با ظهور تکنولوژی‌های حافظه‌ای دیجیتال (الکترونیک) در تولید، ذخیره و انتقال دانش‌ها و حافظه‌های دینی به نظر می‌رسد اکولوژی حافظه‌ای ایرانیان یک بار دیگر دگرگون شده و ازاین‌رو، کلان حافظه‌ها (ی دینی) جای خود را به حافظه‌های متکثر می‌دهند و نقش قدرت عامه ایرانیان در حافظۀ دینی‌شان در حال احیا شدن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Memory and Religion in Iran; Transformations and Perspectives

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Rasouli 1
  • Nematollah Fazeli 2
1 PhD Candidate of Political Sociology, University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor of Anthropology, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies
چکیده [English]

In the present paper, the transformations in Iranians’ memory (with an emphasis on their religiosity) is explained and the role of power relations is analyzed. For this purpose, three types of memory technologies (oral, literacy (print) and digital (electronic)) and their impacts on the formation of memory ecologies in different periods (pre-modern, modern, and the present) will be discussed. Then, the role of power relations in the production, accumulation, and transition of Iranian religious memory (or religious information, knowledge and rituals) is analyzed, based on the approach and method of "cultural analysis". It will be shown that with the transition to the modern era, the power of agency and role of Iranians in their religious memory shifted from the public toward the benefits of the intellectuals and the state. In fact, the argument is that in the modern era, the power of Iranians' memory production and reproduction in terms of redefining the position of religion declined, and instead the role of modern structures (such as literacy)— through the production of intellectuals’ meta-memories as well as the state—increased. However, as will be mentioned, with the advent of digital (or electronic) memory technologies in the production, accumulation, and transition of religious knowledge as well as memory, the Iranians’ memory ecology has been transformed once again, and thereby, the (religious) meta-memories are being replaced by the plural memories and the role of Iranian public agency in their religious memory is being restored.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iranian Religious Memory
  • Memory Ecologies
  • Cultural Analysis
  • Memory Wars
  • memory politics
  • Counter-memories
  • Plural Memories
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