نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه یاسوج، ایران. (نویسنده مسئول)

2 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه شناسی دانشگاه یاسوج، ایران.

3 استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه رازی، ایران.

4 استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه کردستان، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر تاریخ نهاد آموزش را نه از منظر پیشرفت که میل به هدایت جامعه به‌سوی سعادت عمومی دارد، بلکه از منظر انتقادی به‌مثابه نهادی یکدست ساز موردبررسی قرار می‌دهد بنابراین یافته‌های این پژوهش درصدد پاسخ به این پرسش خواهد بود که آموزش چگونه در وضعیتی متکثر، سوژه ملی را برساخت؛ چارچوب مفهومی پژوهش برآمده از مباحث اندرسون در رابطه با خلق تصویر ملت به میانجی آموزش‌وپرورش در سطح ذهنی و استفاده از مفهوم حکومتندی به‌منظور توضیح سازوکارهای انضباطی در سطح مادی است همچنین از روش تبارشناسی فوکو برای بازنمایی این مقطع تاریخی استفاده شده است. با تکیه بر تبارشناسی در این پژوهش، ابتدا شرایط گذار از آموزش مکتب‌خانه‌ای به آموزش مدرن براثر دو رخداد جنگ و بیماری در بستر ارتباط با غرب توضیحاتی ارائه شده است که منجر به‌صورت بندی کردارها و گزاره­هایی حول گفتمان ترقی شد و تربیت ملت را به سطح رؤیت­پذیری برکشاند و سپس به شرایط برآمدن گفتمان ناسیونالیسم اقتدارطلب در اواخر دوره قاجار پرداخته شده است؛ گفتمان فوق با برجسته کردن ترس از فروپاشی، زمینه‌های رسوخ در ابژه­های قدرت را فراهم ساخت و این فرایند در نظام آموزشی ذیل یکدست­سازی اذهان با محوریت کتاب­های درسی و یکدست­سازی بدن­ها با تأکید بر مکانسیم­های انضباطی به انجام رسید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Construction of the National Subject with the Mediation of Education in Iran (First Pahlavi Period)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Mokhtari 1
  • Farshid Rahimi 2
  • Jalil Karimi 3
  • Kamal Khaleghpanah 4

1 Associate Professor of Sociology, Yasouj University, Iran (Corresponding author).

2 PhD Candidate of Sociology, Yasouj University, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Sociology, Razi University, Iran

4 Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Kurdistan, Iran

چکیده [English]

There are three major paradigms in relation to the origin of nations; primordialism, modernism and ethic symbolism. It seems that the modernist paradigm considers the nation as a construct and the result of the bureaucratic processes of the state, and in line with this, Anderson`s ideas on the role of education in nation-building have expanded. Foucault`s discussions about the concept of governmentality on the creation of subjects as mediators of disciplinary institutions have also recently been addressed by researchers in this field. In this research, by using the concepts of these theorists and their methodology, the genealogy of education and nation-building in modern Iran is represented. At first, based on the genealogy in this research, the conditions for the emergence of the discourse of authoritarian nationalism in the late Qajar period were summarized. Then, the study explains minds and subsequently bodies were harmonized in the Reza Shah period. In this step, the method of materialization of this discourse is presented with the power of mediator, which shows itself in the curriculum, educational content, and educational processes. Finally, while explaining the conditions for the discovery of Iranian nationalism, the results showed that the two main concepts of homogenization of minds and homogenization of bodies with mediation on discipline were present.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • maginary Societies
  • Genealogy
  • Discourse
  • Authoritarian nationalism
  • Pahlavi period
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