عنوان مقاله [English]
The present paper aims to study the way material and immaterial components of modern culture were reflected in Qajar era (Naseri era) newspapers. The contents of two newspapers Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh and Akhtar were analyzed using a conceptual framework based on material and immaterial components of culture, the theoretical studies based on the theories of diffusion of innovation and cultural lag, and the quantitative content analysis method. Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh was the only Persian newspaper in Iran during the first decade of Naseri era (1848-1858). Akhtar was randomly selected from among the newspapers published in the third decade (1871-1881). Using systematic sampling method, 12 issues of each newspaper were selected. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and the relationship between variables was examined using Chi-Square test.
The results showed that there was a significant difference between the two newspapers in terms of different variables. First, although the contents
published in both newspapers were mostly news items, there were more
reports in Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh and more analytical contents, such as articles, in Akhtar. The variety of styles was more common in the latter. Second, the contents of Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh were mostly social, while those of Akhtar were mainly political. Third, the elements of modern culture had a low share in both of the newspapers, where material elements were predominant. However, there were some differences in the details. In Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh, military equipment and sites, and in Akhtar, mostly material elements in politics were reflected. The number and variety of immaterial elements of modern culture had a higher presence in Akhtar than in Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh. In most of their contents, both newspapers merely had a function of giving information on the elements of modern culture, and rarely took orientations. However, in cases where the newspapers had taken an orientation, it was positive or neutral in Vaqaye-e Ettefaqieh, while Akhtar took negative orientations and rejected some of these elements.