عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In this article, first, the writer tries to clarify full and partial synonyms of Uparticipation. Then, he does his best to present an idiomatic definition of the term, comparing it with different concepts such as democracy, authority, organization, contribution, collective contribution, coopertation, and the like. Afterwards, the writer evaluates these expressions, in trying to combine them in a more fundamental conceptual framework. Finally, it has been concluded by the writer that the Iranian participation researchers do agree on the common identity of participation and cooperation, although there is not a general agreement on the different aspects of the term "participation" itself among them.