موانع ارتقاء شغلی زنان در ایران: الزامات نقشی یا محدودیت‌های ساختاری (فراتحلیل کیفی مطالعات دهۀ اخیر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مطالعات زنان دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

عدم تناسب حضور زنان در سطوح مدیریتی، با توزیع جنسیتی جمعیت و تحصیلات، زمینه‌ساز پژوهش‌هایی درخصوص بررسی موانع دستیابی زنان به سطوح مدیریتی شده است. در این مطالعه با بهره‌گیری از چارچوب کرومی، نظریه‌های مطرح درخصوص موانع ارتقاء شغلی زنان در دو دسته موانع درونی و بیرونی صورت‌بندی شده و سپس مطالعات تجربی داخلی صورت گرفته در این زمینه، طی بازۀ زمانی سال‌های 1385 تا 1395 براساس این چارچوب مورد بررسی قرار گرفته‌اند. نظریه‌های موانع درونی به طور عمده، موانع دستیابی زنان به مناصب مدیریتی را در الزامات نقشی زنان و میزان دل‌بستگی شغلی آن‌ها جستجو می‌کنند. در مقابل، در نظریه‌های موانع بیرونی، بر عوامل نگرشی همچون کلیشه‌های جنسیتی و عوامل ساختاری همچون سقف شیشه‌ای و تبعیض جنسیتی تأکید می‌شود. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه فراتحلیل بوده و مطالعات مورد بررسی براساس جستجوی سیستماتیک در چهار پایگاه داده‌های علمی داخلی انتخاب شده‌اند. نتایج فراتحلیل 20 مطالعۀ انتخاب شده، نشان می‌دهد که یافته‌های این مطالعات در مجموع تأییدکنندۀ موانع بیرونی هستند. همچنین در برخی از مطالعات، تفاوت معنی‌داری بین زنان و مردان درخصوص ارجحیت موانع درونی یا بیرونی مؤثر بر دست‌یابی زنان به مناصب مدیریتی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Barriers to Women’s Job Promotion in Iran: Role Requirements or Structural Limitations (A Qualitative Meta-analysis of the Recent Decade)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Janadleh 1
  • Zahra Pouya 2
1 Assistant Professor of Sociology, Allameh Tabataba’i University
2 MA of Women Studies, Allameh Tabataba’i University
چکیده [English]

The disproportion between women’s presence in managerial levels and gender distribution of population as well as education have been an underlying basis to some studies regarding the examination of women’s barriers to accessing managerial levels. By using Cromie’s framework, in this study, posed theories on barriers to women’s job promotion have been classified into two categories: Internal and external barriers, and consequently, the domestic empiricial studies conducted in this field have been explored based on that framework from 2006 to 2016. Broadly speaking, theories related to internal barriers have sought the barriers to women’s access to managerial positions in relation to their role requirements and job involvements. In contrast, theories concerning about external barriers accentuate such attitudinal factors as gender stereotypes and structural factors as glass ceiling and gender discrimination. Utilizing meta-analysis, in this article, we have chosen our reviewed studies based on systematic search through 4 domestic scientific databases. The results of 20 mata-analyzed studies indicate that the findings of these studies, by and large, confirm the external barriers. Moreover, in some cases, there is a meaningful difference between women and men in relation to their preference regarding internal or external barriers impacting on women’s access to managerial positions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Job Promotion
  • women
  • Structural Barriers
  • Attitudinal Barriers
  • Role Requirements
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