ارزیابی کیفیت در تحقیق کیفی: اصول و راهبردهای اعتباریابی و تعمیم‫پذیری دکتر احمد محمدپور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

شماره48علوم اجتماعی بهار1389

چکیده

چکیده
با توجه به تسلط تاریخی روششناسی اثباتیـ کمّی بر بخش عمدهای از نظریه وروش در علوم‏اجتماعی، غالباً چنین تصور شده که روشهای کیفی فاقد ساختار و رویههای منظم بوده و از اصول تعریف‏شده و کلاسیک روشهای کمّی اثباتی تبعیت نمیکنند. بر این مبنا، فرض شده است که نتایج و استدلال‏های مبتنی بر آن چندان متقن و قابل اعتماد نبوده و این نوع روششناسی فاقد معیارهای ارزیابی و دقتپذیری میباشد. این در حالی است که روششناسان و محققان کیفی در خلال چند دهة اخیر راهبردها و معیارهایی را برای ارزیابی کیفیت دادهها و نتایج تحقیقات کیفی ارائه دادهاند که نسبت به معیارهای تحقیق کمّی بسیار متنوعتر به نظر میرسند. در این راستا، هدف از این مقاله معرفی معیارهای ارزیابی کیفیت و بررسی اصول و راهبردهای اعتباریابی و تعمیمپذیری در تحقیق کیفی است. در این مقاله، سعی شده است راهبردها و معیارهای گوناگون تعیین کیفیت، معتبرسازی و تعمیمپذیری در تحقیق کیفی مطرح و برخی از مهم‏ترین آنها مورد بحث قرار گیرند.
واژه‌های کلیدی: تحقیق کیفی، ارزیابی کیفیت، قابلیت اعتماد، زاویهبندی، انتقالپذیری، برونیابی.
 
چکیده
با توجه به تسلط تاریخی روششناسی اثباتیـ کمّی بر بخش عمدهای از نظریه وروش در علوم‏اجتماعی، غالباً چنین تصور شده که روشهای کیفی فاقد ساختار و رویههای منظم بوده و از اصول تعریف‏شده و کلاسیک روشهای کمّی اثباتی تبعیت نمیکنند. بر این مبنا، فرض شده است که نتایج و استدلال‏های مبتنی بر آن چندان متقن و قابل اعتماد نبوده و این نوع روششناسی فاقد معیارهای ارزیابی و دقتپذیری میباشد. این در حالی است که روششناسان و محققان کیفی در خلال چند دهة اخیر راهبردها و معیارهایی را برای ارزیابی کیفیت دادهها و نتایج تحقیقات کیفی ارائه دادهاند که نسبت به معیارهای تحقیق کمّی بسیار متنوعتر به نظر میرسند. در این راستا، هدف از این مقاله معرفی معیارهای ارزیابی کیفیت و بررسی اصول و راهبردهای اعتباریابی و تعمیمپذیری در تحقیق کیفی است. در این مقاله، سعی شده است راهبردها و معیارهای گوناگون تعیین کیفیت، معتبرسازی و تعمیمپذیری در تحقیق کیفی مطرح و برخی از مهم‏ترین آنها مورد بحث قرار گیرند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


منابع

- Arminio, J. L., and F. H. Hultgren (2002), “Breaking Out from the Shadow: The Question of Criteria in Qualitative Research”,Journal of College Student Development, 43, 446–456.       

- Belcher, J. (1991), “Understanding the Process of Social Drift among the Homeless: A Qualitative Analysis”, In E. Sherman and W. J. Reid (Eds.), Qualitative Research in Social Work, New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press.

- Bryman, A. (1988), Quantity and Quality in Social Research,London: Unwin Hyman.

- Bryman, A. (2004), Social Research Methods, Second edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

- Burns, N. and S. K. Grove. (2005), The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, & Utilization, Fifth Edition: Saunders Press. Pp: 383-384. 

- Campbell, D. T., and D. W. Fiske (1959). Convergent and Discriminate validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105

- Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

- Creswell, J. W. (2003).Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods, London: Sage Publication.

- Cronbach, L. and et al (1975),”Beyond the Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology”, American Psychologist, 30:116-127.

- Cronbach, L. and et al, (1980), Toward Reform of Program evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

- Cronbach, L. (1982). Designing Evaluations of Educational and Social Programs,  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

- Depoy, E. and L. Gitlin (2005), Introduction to Research: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies, Third Edition, Mosby Press.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna, S. Lincoln, (1994), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Second Edition, London: Sage Publication Ltd.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna S. Lincoln, (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Denzin, Norman, (1989), The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, Third Editions, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. P: 347.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna Lincoln. (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, London: Sage  Publications Ltd.

- Eisner, E. W. (1975), “The Perceptive Eye: Toward the Reformulation of Educational Evaluation”, In Occasional Papers of the Stanford Evaluation Consortium (Mimeo), Stanford, CA: StanfordUniversity.

- Eisner, E. W. (1998), The Enlightened Eye: Qualitative Inquiry and the Enhancement of Educational Practice,Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

- Erlandson, David (1993), Doing Naturalistic Inquiry. London: Sage Publications.

- Fielding, Nigel and Jane Fielding, (1986), Linking Data, London: Sage Publications Ltd. P: 43.

- Gabrium Jaber, and Holestein, James.(1997), The New Language of Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Glesne, Corrine. (2006). Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction (3rd Ed.). Boston: Pearson.

- Guba, E. G., and Y. S. Lincoln (1982). “Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry, Educational Communication and Technology Journal 30 (4), 233-252.

- Guba, E. G., and Y. S. Lincoln (1989). Fourth generation evaluation, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

- Guba, E. G. and Y. S. Lincoln (2005). “Paradigmatic Controversies, Contradictions, and Emerging Confluences”, In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Third Edition,  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 194

- Guba, E. G. (1978), Toward a Methodology of Naturalist Inquiry in Educational Evaluation, CSE Monograph series in evaluation. No. 8, Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation

- Hammersley, M. (1992), what’s Wrong With Ethnography? London: Rutledge. Pp: 57, 67.

- Holliday, A. (2002), Doing and Writing Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publications. P: 8.

- Johnson, R. B., and L. B. Christensen (2008), Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp: 275, 282.

- Kaplan, A, (1964), The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Sciences, San Francisco: Chandler. P: 91.

- Kimchi J, B. Polivka, and J. S. Stevenson (1991), “Triangulation: Operational Definitions”, In, Nursing Research; 40: 364-366.

- Kirk, J, and M. L. Miller (1986), Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research, London: Sage.

- Krathwohl, D. R. (2004), Methods of Educational and Social Science Research: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, Long Grove, IL:Waveland Press. Pp: 271-280.

- Kvale, Steinar and Svend Brinkmann,(2009), InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing, Second Editions, Sage Publications.

- Lather, P. (1993), 'Fertile Obsession: Validity after Poststructuralism” In, The Sociological Quarterly, 34(4): 673-693.

- Lee, R. M. (2000). Unobtrusive methods in social research, Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

- Lincoln, Y. S., and E. G. Guba, (1985). Naturalistic inquiry, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 124.

- Marshall, C, and Rossman, G. B. (1999), Designing Qualitative Research, Newbury Park, CA. Sage Publications Inc.

- Maxwell, J. (1997).”Designing a Qualitative Study”, In L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of applied social research methods (pp. 69–100). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

- Maxwell, J. (2004), Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approache, Second Edition, London: Sage Publications.

- Meloy, J, M. (1994), Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing, Hillsdale, NJ:Lawerence Erlbaum.

- Mills, M. B. and M. Huberman (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: Sourcebook of New Methods, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Mitchell, Richard, (1993), Scarcy and Fieldwork, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Neuman, L. (2006). Social Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Third Edition. London: Allyn and Bacon. Pp: 404-405.

- Neuman,. (2007), Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Second Edition, Allyn & Bacon.

- Patton, M. (2001). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, London: Sage Publication. Pp: 555, 584.

- Ritchie, Jane and Jane. Lewis, (2005),Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London: Sage Publications Ltd. P: 267.

- Royse, David, (2004), Research Methods in Social Work, Fourth Edition, Thomson- Brooks/Cole Press.

- Seale, C.(1999), The Quality of Qualitative Research, Oxford, Blackwell.

- Shank, G. (2006), Qualitative Research: A Personal Skills Approach, Pearson, Merril Prentice- Hall. P: 113.

- Silverman, D. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publication. P: 512.

- Singelton, R. and et al., (2005), Approaches to Social Research, London: Sage Publication.

- Study Method in Social Inquiry”, Educational Researcher 7:5-8.

- Stake, R. (1995), The Art of Case Study Research, London: Sage. P:6.

- Stake, R. (2000),”Case Studies”, Pp 435-54, in Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition, edited by Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincolon, London: Sage.

- Tashakkori, A., and C. Teddlie (1998), Mixed Methodology: Combining the Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 69.

- Teddlie, C. and A. Tashakkori (2009), Foundations of Mixed Method Research: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Techniques in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, First Edition, London: Sage Publications. P: 86, 294.

- Wolcott, Harry, (2005), The Art of Fieldwork, Second Edition, AltaMira Press.

- Yin, R. K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 

 
 

 
 

 

منابع

- Arminio, J. L., and F. H. Hultgren (2002), “Breaking Out from the Shadow: The Question of Criteria in Qualitative Research”,Journal of College Student Development, 43, 446–456.       

- Belcher, J. (1991), “Understanding the Process of Social Drift among the Homeless: A Qualitative Analysis”, In E. Sherman and W. J. Reid (Eds.), Qualitative Research in Social Work, New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press.

- Bryman, A. (1988), Quantity and Quality in Social Research,London: Unwin Hyman.

- Bryman, A. (2004), Social Research Methods, Second edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

- Burns, N. and S. K. Grove. (2005), The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, & Utilization, Fifth Edition: Saunders Press. Pp: 383-384. 

- Campbell, D. T., and D. W. Fiske (1959). Convergent and Discriminate validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105

- Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

- Creswell, J. W. (2003).Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods, London: Sage Publication.

- Cronbach, L. and et al (1975),”Beyond the Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology”, American Psychologist, 30:116-127.

- Cronbach, L. and et al, (1980), Toward Reform of Program evaluation, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

- Cronbach, L. (1982). Designing Evaluations of Educational and Social Programs,  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

- Depoy, E. and L. Gitlin (2005), Introduction to Research: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies, Third Edition, Mosby Press.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna, S. Lincoln, (1994), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Second Edition, London: Sage Publication Ltd.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna S. Lincoln, (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Denzin, Norman, (1989), The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, Third Editions, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. P: 347.

- Denzin, Norman and Yvonna Lincoln. (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, London: Sage  Publications Ltd.

- Eisner, E. W. (1975), “The Perceptive Eye: Toward the Reformulation of Educational Evaluation”, In Occasional Papers of the Stanford Evaluation Consortium (Mimeo), Stanford, CA: StanfordUniversity.

- Eisner, E. W. (1998), The Enlightened Eye: Qualitative Inquiry and the Enhancement of Educational Practice,Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

- Erlandson, David (1993), Doing Naturalistic Inquiry. London: Sage Publications.

- Fielding, Nigel and Jane Fielding, (1986), Linking Data, London: Sage Publications Ltd. P: 43.

- Gabrium Jaber, and Holestein, James.(1997), The New Language of Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Glesne, Corrine. (2006). Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction (3rd Ed.). Boston: Pearson.

- Guba, E. G., and Y. S. Lincoln (1982). “Epistemological and Methodological Bases of Naturalistic Inquiry, Educational Communication and Technology Journal 30 (4), 233-252.

- Guba, E. G., and Y. S. Lincoln (1989). Fourth generation evaluation, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

- Guba, E. G. and Y. S. Lincoln (2005). “Paradigmatic Controversies, Contradictions, and Emerging Confluences”, In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Third Edition,  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 194

- Guba, E. G. (1978), Toward a Methodology of Naturalist Inquiry in Educational Evaluation, CSE Monograph series in evaluation. No. 8, Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Evaluation

- Hammersley, M. (1992), what’s Wrong With Ethnography? London: Rutledge. Pp: 57, 67.

- Holliday, A. (2002), Doing and Writing Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publications. P: 8.

- Johnson, R. B., and L. B. Christensen (2008), Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp: 275, 282.

- Kaplan, A, (1964), The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Sciences, San Francisco: Chandler. P: 91.

- Kimchi J, B. Polivka, and J. S. Stevenson (1991), “Triangulation: Operational Definitions”, In, Nursing Research; 40: 364-366.

- Kirk, J, and M. L. Miller (1986), Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research, London: Sage.

- Krathwohl, D. R. (2004), Methods of Educational and Social Science Research: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, Long Grove, IL:Waveland Press. Pp: 271-280.

- Kvale, Steinar and Svend Brinkmann,(2009), InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing, Second Editions, Sage Publications.

- Lather, P. (1993), 'Fertile Obsession: Validity after Poststructuralism” In, The Sociological Quarterly, 34(4): 673-693.

- Lee, R. M. (2000). Unobtrusive methods in social research, Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

- Lincoln, Y. S., and E. G. Guba, (1985). Naturalistic inquiry, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 124.

- Marshall, C, and Rossman, G. B. (1999), Designing Qualitative Research, Newbury Park, CA. Sage Publications Inc.

- Maxwell, J. (1997).”Designing a Qualitative Study”, In L. Bickman & D. J. Rog (Eds.), Handbook of applied social research methods (pp. 69–100). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

- Maxwell, J. (2004), Qualitative Research Design: An Interactive Approache, Second Edition, London: Sage Publications.

- Meloy, J, M. (1994), Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing, Hillsdale, NJ:Lawerence Erlbaum.

- Mills, M. B. and M. Huberman (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: Sourcebook of New Methods, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Mitchell, Richard, (1993), Scarcy and Fieldwork, London: Sage Publications Ltd.

- Neuman, L. (2006). Social Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Third Edition. London: Allyn and Bacon. Pp: 404-405.

- Neuman,. (2007), Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Second Edition, Allyn & Bacon.

- Patton, M. (2001). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, London: Sage Publication. Pp: 555, 584.

- Ritchie, Jane and Jane. Lewis, (2005),Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London: Sage Publications Ltd. P: 267.

- Royse, David, (2004), Research Methods in Social Work, Fourth Edition, Thomson- Brooks/Cole Press.

- Seale, C.(1999), The Quality of Qualitative Research, Oxford, Blackwell.

- Shank, G. (2006), Qualitative Research: A Personal Skills Approach, Pearson, Merril Prentice- Hall. P: 113.

- Silverman, D. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research, London: Sage Publication. P: 512.

- Singelton, R. and et al., (2005), Approaches to Social Research, London: Sage Publication.

- Study Method in Social Inquiry”, Educational Researcher 7:5-8.

- Stake, R. (1995), The Art of Case Study Research, London: Sage. P:6.

- Stake, R. (2000),”Case Studies”, Pp 435-54, in Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2nd Edition, edited by Norman Denzin and Yvonna Lincolon, London: Sage.

- Tashakkori, A., and C. Teddlie (1998), Mixed Methodology: Combining the Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P: 69.

- Teddlie, C. and A. Tashakkori (2009), Foundations of Mixed Method Research: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Techniques in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, First Edition, London: Sage Publications. P: 86, 294.

- Wolcott, Harry, (2005), The Art of Fieldwork, Second Edition, AltaMira Press.

- Yin, R. K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.