بازشناسی طبقه متوسط جهانی (با توجه به طبقه متوسط آسیایی) -طاهره قادری* سجاد کاوه**

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی

2 سمتی ندارد

چکیده

در دهه های اخیر، با افزایش شمار خانوارهای طبقۀ متوسطِ مصرف گرا در کشورهای در حال توسعه، خاصه ناحیۀ آسیا و رشد بنگاه های آسیایی که عرضه کننده کالاهای مصرفی غیر ضروری و بازاری اند، مفهوم پر طمطراق "طبقۀ متوسط نوین آسیایی" به جای"طبقۀ متوسط جهانی" مورد توجه قرار گرفته و بدنۀ وسیعی از تحقیقات و ادبیات را به خود اختصاص داده است. مقالۀ حاضر، با روش مطالعۀ اسنادی کتابخانه ای، و بررسی جدیدترین پژوهش ها، درصدد است تا ماهیت و ابعاد گوناگون این جریان نوین را واشکافی کند و تصویر جامع و نسبتا کاملی از این موضوع به دست دهد. این مقاله، نخست، حجم عظیم خانوارهای طبقۀ متوسط نوینِ آسیایی را که در پرتو رفرم های سیاسی اقتصادیِ حکومت ها در آن ناحیه ظهور یافتند، مورد بررسی قرار می دهد و سپس، با بررسی معیارهای گوناگونِ سنجش طبقۀ متوسط جدید، یک سنجۀ دقیق تر و جامع تری را پیش نهاد می کند. در پایان نیز، واکنش های مختلف اعضای این طبقه را که بسته به زمینه های اجتماعی- سیاسی و اجتماعی- اقتصادیِ کشورها گوناگون است، مورد بررسی قرار می دهد و نشان می دهد که مترتب کردن رسالت هایی بس انتزاعی و بزرگ به طبقۀ متوسط جدید مصرف گرا ، بی آنکه بسترهای تاریخی و مراحل رشد اقتصادی درون کشورها را لحاظ کند، تا چه اندازه شکننده خواهد بود.
کلیدواژگان: طبقۀ متوسط جهانی، طبقۀ متوسط نوین آسیایی، اقتصادهای نوظهور، مصرف گرایی.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The reassessment of world middle classes ( with a focus on the new Asian middle class)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tahereh Ghaderi 1
  • Sajad Kaveh 2
1 academic member of the staff
چکیده [English]

In recent decades, with an increasing number of consumer-oriented middle class households in developing countries, particularly in Asia and the increasing number of Asian firms which supply unnecessary and market-oriented goods, the concept of “New Asian Middle Class” has become the focus of attention instead of the concept of “Global Middle Class”, and a large body of research is done about this new Asian middle class. This article, by using documentary-library studies and reviewing the latest research works, is seeking to investigate the nature and various aspects of this process, and is trying to give a comprehensive and more complete picture of this subject. The article , first, studies the massive number of new Asian middle class households that have emerged as the result of economic and political reforms of the governments in Asia, and then, by assessing various criteria which have been used for measuring the new middle classes , proposes more accurate and more comprehensive criteria. Finally, the article examines the reactions of the members of this class to different issues ; reactions depending on socio-economic and socio-political backgrounds, and shows that to what extent assigning large missions on this new consumer middle classes, without considering the historical contexts and circumstances and the stages of economic growth of their countries , would be fragile.
Keywords: global middle class, the new Asian middle class, emerging economies, consumerism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • global middle class
  • the new Asian middle class
  • emerging economies
  • consumerism
 

 

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