عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Ibn - Khaldun has an epistemological theory which is the result of his criticisms to cognitive limitations of rational knowledges. Ibn-Khaldun believes that human being is different from animal by thought. With it, he perceives himself and forms his historical-social life. For Ibn-Khaldun, there are two classes of perceptions: sense perception and spiritual perception. Through sense perception, knowledge is begun and improved. Even rational arguments belong to this type of perception. Thereby the mind.at first, confronts external reality and then universal forms are shaped in it. In other words, universals are formed through observation and induction. By searching on species, sex, and character of things, universals are formed. In "ELME-OMRAN", universals are accidental and essential qualities of social facts. In view of Ibn-Khaldun, science is a knowledge toward causal relationship of things. Causal explanation of relationship among things is realized by an explanation based on material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final cause.