بازنمایی وطن در میان‌ذهنیت مهاجران: رهیافتی نظری به دیاسپورای ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار انسان شناسی پژوهشکده مطالعات فرهنگی و اجتماعی وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری.

10.22054/qjss.2020.48719.2183

چکیده

در سال­های اخیر مهاجرت به تجربه­زیسته بسیاری از ایرانیان مبدل شده است. مطالعه دیاسپورای ایرانی پیش­درآمد فهم روابط فراملی و همچنین بازگشت به‌عنوان استراتژی­ مهاجران در ارتباط با کشور مبدأ است. این پژوهش با تمرکز بر جامعه مهاجران ایرانی در کشور آلمان به دنبال شناخت مختصات دیاسپورای ایرانی است که از خلال آن تصویری جامع از میان­ذهنیت مهاجران نسبت به مفهوم وطن، ارتباط با آن و همچنین فهم تعاملات دیاسپوریک ارائه نماید. این مطالعه در چارچوب پارادایم کیفی و با رویکردهای مردم­نگارانه به­صورت میدانی انجام‌شده و تکنیک­های گردآوری داده­ها مصاحبه نیمه­ساختار یافته (48 مهاجر ایرانی ساکن آلمان) و مصاحبه متخصصان (9 انجمن­ فعال مهاجران)، مشاهده مشارکتی و بررسی­های اسنادی است. دلایل متعددی همچون زمان مهاجرت، انگیزه­های خروج از کشور، تنوع قومیتی، مذهبی، سوگیری­های سیاسی و ایدئولوژیک، مرزبندی­های نسلی، وضعیت اقامتی، پایگاه طبقاتی و همچنین نحوه ارتباط با کشور مبدأ منجر به پررنگ شدن مرزهای هویتی در میان مهاجران ایرانی شده به­طوری که دیاسپورایی ناهمگون، متنوع، پیچیده، چهل‌تکه و چندلایه را شکل داده است. این مسأله در مصرف فرهنگی مهاجران و همچنین جغرافیایی زدایی از وطن نمود یافته و به ضعف هویت دیاسپوریک و تعاملات درون دیاسپورا منجر شده است. همچنین مفهوم وطن به‌عنوان برساختی متصور در میان­ذهنیت دیاسپورا ایرانی در آلمان سه بعد معنایی عاطفی/فرهنگی، ملی/جغرافیایی و مذهبی/سیاسی داشته و وابستگی مهاجران به وطن در سه سطح وابستگی قوی، وابستگی پاندولی و وابستگی ضعیف قابل‌تحلیل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Homeland Representation among Migrants’ Intersubjectivity: A Theoretical Approach to Iranian Diaspora

نویسنده [English]

  • Saideh Saidi
Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Research Institute for Social and Cultural Studies, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
چکیده [English]

Migration become a lived experience for millions of Iranian in the last decades. This paper tries to shed light on the Iranian diaspora and its transnational relations with the homeland. Based on a qualitative method this ethnographic research has been conducted through 48 semi-structured interviews with Iranian migrants’ lives in Germany. It also followed by participant observation and expert interview with 9 associations which work for immigrants in selected cities in Germany. Because of various reasons such as time of migration, motivations for immigration, differences in terms of class, ethnicity and religious affiliation, intergenerational challenges and political perspectives Iranian migrants make a fragmented, hybrid and contested diaspora which impact upon diasporic identity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Diaspora
  • Homeland
  • Transnationalism
  • Iranian in Germany
  • intersubjectivity
  • Identity
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