بی ثباتی سیاسی در دوره مشروطه از منظر مناسبات بین دولت و جامعه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 دانشیار جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

10.22054/qjss.2020.44924.2138

چکیده

نوشتار حاضر به توضیح چرایی و چگونگی وقوع مکرر بی‌ثباتی‌های سیاسی و عدم تداوم دولت نوپدید مشروطه از منظر رابطه بین جامعه و دولت می‌پردازد. برای این منظور، در ابتدا به بررسی ویژگی‌های جامعه و دولت و سپس با استمداد از رویکرد نهادگرایی میگدال نشان داده است که چگونه نهادها و نیروهای اجتماعی این دوره جهت کسب حق تعیین «قواعد» و قدرت انحصاری «کنترل اجتماعی»، دولت مشروطه را به میدان کشمکش و گاه با ائتلاف موقتی‌ای که با برخی نیروهای اجتماعی قدرتمند ایجاد می‌کردند آن را به «کارگزار» خود تبدیل می‌نمودند که به نوبه خود مخالفت دیگر نیروها و در نتیجه تشدید منازعات سیاسی را موجب می‌شد. فقدان خودمختاری و تضاد منافع این نهادها تضعیف قدرت عاملیت دولت را موجب شد که به تدریج زمینه افزایش نارضایتی و بی‌اعتمادی، کاهش مشروعیت دولت، تعمیق شکاف بین دولت و جامعه و در نهایت بروز رویدادهایی از قبیل کودتا، فروپاشی پی‌درپی کابینه‌های دولتی، جنبش‌های گریز از مرکز و... را فراهم کرد که ثبات نظام سیاسی مستقر در این دوره را با چالش‌ها و یا دگرگونی‌های نامتعارف مواجه نمود. در واقع، بی‌ثباتی‌های پس از انقلاب مشروطه را باید در عدم تقارن قدرت دولت با قدرت جامعه یا به عبارتی به‌مثابه پیامدِ «رابطه نامتقارن» بین جامعه پراکنده و نامنسجم و دولت ضعیف دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Political Instability of the Constitutional Period from the Perspective of the Relationship between Society and State

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Bizaban 1
  • Mostafa Ejtehadi 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Sociology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
2 Associate Professor of Sociology, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

In this paper, repeated occurrence of political instability and lack of continuity of newly founded constitutional states are explained from the perspective of the relationship between society and state. At first, properties of the characteristics of society and the state are examined, and via institutional approach of Migdal, it is shown that how the institutions and social forces of this era are in continuous effort to obtain the right to determine "Rules" and exercise the exclusive power of "Social Control". They challenged the constitutional state, and sometimes with temporary coalition formed with some powerful social forces, turned states into their "agent," which in turn led to opposition from other forces which, as a result, escalates political strife. Lack of autonomy and conflict of interests between these institutions weakened the agency power of state, which gradually increased dissatisfaction and mistrust, reduced legitimacy of the state, deepened the gap between state and society, and ultimately provided situations for events such as coups, collapse of cabinets, centrifugal movements and so on which leads to challenges or unconventional changes for political stability. In fact, post-revolutionary instability should be seen as a mismatch between the power of the state and the power of society, or in other words, the consequence of an "Asymmetrical Relationship" between a fragmented and incoherent society and a weak state.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Political instability
  • Relations between society and state
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